Compiler - object, network - object, method - also an object. However in Python 3, the range() method returns an iterator. Because everything is typed and there is no silent cast or fail, you exactly know what you are manipulating, and there's no magic. So I guess he is using Python3, which doesn't have xrange ;) – nalzok Oct 19 '16 at 5:33 That is a thin line your asking us to walk between- not using range() or loops. The fact that this is all built upon little other than function application means that not only is the thought process, but even concrete solutions are very transferable to any other language. In a class-based language, first you describe a rectangle, describe a red rectangle as a type of rectangle, describe blue and big blue rectangles, and now that you have described them, you must create instances of them, and only then do you have the rectangles. Learning C++ well is a ten-year project, and even experts are frequently surprised by the language. After numerous years, still no modules... you must be kidding! Cargo is the official package manager for Rust. If you learn the foundations of programming in JavaScript you can reapply that education later in building web applications. Aside from the browser console, you can also use online Javascript playgrounds such as JS Bin and JS Fiddle. Because C++ (and its precursor C) are "lower level" than a lot of popular programming languages they are also faster at executing code than Java or C# which require VMs and garbage collection threads. This Python program allows user to enter the total number of rows and columns. Most things will still be portable (or at least emulatable) between Windows, Linux, and FreeBSD for example; but you will at times need to make use of platform-specific support libraries and APIs as well. A beginer should learn something else first, something that is better conceived and refined. Example. JavaScript looks for every possible way to treat the code you write as runnable and is very reluctant to point out likely errors. C lacks a large majority of programming concepts that modern languages make use of today. Ruby is too complicated for beginners: arcane Perlisms; semi-significant whitespace; parentheses are not necessary around method arguments, except for sometimes they are; control constructs could be elegantly implemented with block like Smalltalk (Instead they're baked into the grammar. Practically no meaningful Go application can be written without indirect function calls and garbage collection, these are central to Go's core infrastructure. Therefore, cutting down on logical errors. For experienced programmers, this makes Java feel tedious, especially without an IDE, and actively discourages some solutions and some forms of abstraction. have both C and C++ versions. It is like TDD but than compiler-error driven. In other words, if two modules decide to modify the same function on the same class can introduce a number of issues. In no other language you can refactor so easy without any worries, since the compiler will guide you through. Now you don't even have exceptions. deviously simple in syntax, yet highly powerful in paradigms, this language does not force you to the (actually intrinsically broken) object oriented paradigm, has a healthy dose of functional programming inside, and does not bloat the keyword space. Conciseness of Haskell lets us to write the expression on the whiteboard or paper and discuss with others easily. In addition to what's already said, Javascript 1.7+ provides support for iterators and generators which can be used to create a lazy, memory-efficient version of range, simlar to xrange in Python2: Fusing together both answers from @Tadeck and @georg, I came up with this: To use it in a for loop you need the ES6/JS1.7 for-of loop: A port of the range function from Python 2 is provided by the underscore.js and lodash utility libraries (along with many other useful tools). This combined with the REPL provides the best learning experience available. There's the infamous borrow checker for example. How do we know that voltmeters are accurate? It uses newline to end statements and "end" to end blocks so there is no need for lots of semicolons and curly braces. In the same manner that C recursively compiles header files ad infinitum without any sort of dependency checking, C source code is also compiled in the same manner. You only need to specify types in your procedures and objects - you don't need to specify type when you're creating a new variable (unless you're creating it without initialization). I'm partial to Python3 behavior of range. Clojure programmers are highly encouraged to use immutable data in their code. C++ is mature and everything has standardized library. Angular, React, Ember, Meteor, Backbone, Knockout, Express, Mithril, Aurelia. I did not add defensive checks for types etc., but I implemented reverse order of elements - it now works exactly the same as Python counterpart, when the last param is negative integer. TypeScript has a clear and defined roadmap with rapid and constant releases. Elixir is heavily inspired by Ruby's syntax which many people love. What does it mean to “key into” something? 2 equal signs is compare with auto casting to other side type. 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