Species- S. seenghala, Common/local names: Cephalogonimus seenghalus n.sp. Fin formula: D. I/7; P1.I/9; P2.I/5; A.11-12. This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Fishbase: Gaint river catfish Studies on the cestode genus silurotaenia, Nybein, 1942 from mystus seenghala (Ham. C), but the hooks are identical with those of G. bengalensis (Fig. Privacy Policy3. Prof., Deptt. 10. Bony fishes have a sac-like outgrowth, the swim bladder (also called air bladder), arising from the dorsal wall of the oesophagus, which is air-filled organ, used to maintain balance and to swim up and down. Proceedings of the General Meetings for Scientific Business of the Zoological Society of London 1838 (pt 6): 157-165. The brain bears relatively small olfactory lobes and cerebellum. Two short threads like structures, the barbels, are present. Sperata sarwari (Mirza, Nawaz & Javed, 1992). The pelvic and caudal fins are absent. Other articles where Tilapia mossambica is discussed: cichlid: A notable cichlid is Tilapia mossambica, a prolific African species that is now cultivated in many regions as a source of food. India: Auri, Ari, Pogal, Singhara, seenghala, Tengara, Singoa, Alli, Addi, Keeru-jella, multi-jella, Nare-jella, Cumboo-kelutti, Karumthalai-kelutti, Pona-keluthi, Naddu—kelithi, Karatta, Karadu, Sede, Adthu, Halathimeenu, Bilisurage-meena, Coot-kah, Singta (Talwar and Jhingran 1991), Synonyms Height 17.9% SL and 14% TL. Development is direct except in Anguilla where development is indirect with a larva lepto- cephalus. 12693).Undertake localized lateral migrations from the Mekong River to floodplains during the flood season and back to the mainstream or other permanent water bodies during the dry season (Ref. Sperata seenghala [5] är en fiskart som först beskrevs av Sykes, 1839. They are carnivorous, e.g., Mystus seenghala, Clarias batrachus (Magur), Heteropneustes fossilis (Singhi), Wallago attu (Fresh Water Shark), Rita rita. Fishermen brought the specimen to Miss Courtenary Latimer, Curator of the local museum. Elon­gated body is without scales. Macrones seenghala (Sykes, 1839) The below mentioned article provides biology notes on Class Osteichthyes. Labeo, five of Mystus and four of Channa were found. Smith, an eminent Ichthyologist of Rhodes Uni­versity College at Grahams town. The young which hatches from egg is called leptocephalus (larva of eel). Carps have toothless mouth with scales on the body; however, head is without scales. Central nervous system consists of paired cerebral ganglia from which anterior and posterior neuronal pathways arise. Ompok bimaculatus. ADVERTISEMENTS: In this article we will discuss about the digestive system in fishes. Olatunde (1978) observed this phenomenon in Butterfish Eutropius niloticus (Ruppell) in Kainji Lake. Mirza MR, Nawaz H and Javed MN. However this genus reported as first record from Sindh province of Pakistan. }(document, 'script', 'facebook-jssdk')); If NO, You may send your feedback from Here, OR, Do you have any fisheries relevant question? When she failed to identify it, she sent its sketch to Professor J.L.B. Economic importance: Used as food fish. Bony fishes have well developed renal portal system. ADVERTISEMENTS: Fisheries: Types of Fisheries and it Economical Importance! Habitat and niche: Bottom living fish. Yeast: Origin, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Growth Requirements | Industrial Microbiology, How is Bread Made Step by Step? Aorichthys seenghala (Sykes, 1841) Sperata seenghala, the Giant river-catfish, is a species of bagrid catfish. 4832).Adults inhabit standing and sluggish waters of lakes, floodplains, canals and ponds (Ref. There are present 10 pairs of cranial nerves. Welcome to BiologyDiscussion! These neuronal pathways are interlinked by cross connectives and commissures. This fish is also eaten. Gills are weakly developed. Salmostoma bacaila Order - Siluriformes Family - Siluridae Species 9. They are carnivorous, e.g., Ophiocephalus (- Channa) punctatus. This disc is called sucker and situated over the head. v. 14: i-xxii + 2 pp. 2. Before sharing your knowledge on this site, please read the following pages: 1. First dorsal fin is modified to form an oval sucking adhesive disc. General characters: 1. Caudal fin usually homocercal symmetrical (Gr. Bhatt (1970, 1972) studied the food of Indian catfish, Mystus seenghala (Sykes) and Mystus vittatus (Bloch) and found that their diets changed with size of fish. 14. Lateral line present and complete. 5-200. Previously this genus was recorded from India, Bangladesh and Balochistan province of Sindh. Aorichthys aor sarwari Mirza, Nawaz & Javed, 1992 Paragendria baylisi n.sp., from the fish Mystus seenghala purchased in the fish market at Lucknow, measures 9 mm. Dorsal fin situated towards the caudal end. Where are the pollen grains formed in the flower? Each gm flesh of Sperata seenghala contains 200 units of vitamin ‘A’ (Bhuiyan 1964). Labeo fembriatus 5. Body spindle shaped and thin. The dried skin of the sea horse is used for the preparation of some ornaments. Sykes WH. It possesses a striated cuticle and the lateral alae extend from the anterior end almost as far as the anterior third of the worm. Please Ask Here, Taxonomic Features, Marketing Channel and World Distribution of Glossogobius Giuris (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822), Large razorbelly minnow: Salmostoma bacaila, Spotted scat: Scatophagus argus (Linnaeus, 1766), মাছ চাষের সাধারণ সমস্যা ও সমাধান: পুকুরের পানিতে লাল স্তর, মাছ ও চিংড়ির স্বাস্থ্য ব্যবস্থাপনায় দেশীয় প্রযুক্তিগত জ্ঞান ব্যবহার, শ্রিম্প টয়লেট (shrimp toilet): চিংড়ি চাষের উৎপাদন বাড়াতে অভিনব এক প্রযুক্তি, শিক্ষার্থীর জন্য মৎস্য স্টিকার: মৎস্য সম্প্রসারণের কার্যকরী ও অভিনব এক পদ্ধতি, আমুর কার্প: মাছচাষের সম্ভাবনাময় এক নতুন জাত, বাজারে মাছ কাটাকুটির পেশা: তৈরি হতে পারে পিজি ব্যবসার বিপুল সম্ভাবনা, শ্রীমতী আরতি বর্মন: পশ্চিমবঙ্গের একজন সফল মৎস্য উদ্যোক্তা, BdFISH: Bangladesh Fisheries Information Share Home. Mystus seenghala (Sykes), Mystus cavasius (Ham. Govind Sagar Lake Reservoir in Una and Bilaspur Districts of Himachal Pradesh with its 56 km length and nearly 3 km breadth. Neascus Hughes 1927 (Neascus Type-I) Anabas oligolepis Bleeker 102 Gills 2 3. The endoskeleton is cartilaginous in the embryonic stage, but in the adult forms more or less it is replaced by bones. It is carnivorous predatory fish it is very fond of eating earthworms. They have snake-like head). 1. Sperata seenghala ingår i släktet Sperata och familjen Bagridae. A note on the fishes of genus Aorichthys Wu with the description of a new subspecies from Pakistan. to 14.2 mm. and Buch.) Marine Fishes — Exocoetus, Hippocampus, Solea, Echeneis (Sucker fish), Lophius (Angler fish). js.src = "//connect.facebook.net/en_GB/sdk.js#xfbml=1&version=v2.8&appId=470199356343916"; 2. The length of the female tail is 0.3 mm. (Rahman 1989). 2. The neck and the head of the fish are horse-like and the tail is prehensile. Ancyrocephalinae) on the gills of Mystus seenghala in river Ganges near Chandpur (U. P.) India Pragati Rastogi* & Jyoti Singh** *Asso. PATHAN, SANJAY SHAMRAO NANWARE AND R.M. On the fishes of the Deccan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology v. 24 (no. 10. It is a “living fos­sil” which was taken off from the eastern coast of South Africa, on December 22, 1938 by some fishermen. 1840. Seenghala {Mystus seenghala) : It is rich in iron and copper which is good for circulatory system. Chemical named 5-bromo indoxyl acetate has been used to describe the nervous system of a viviparous monogenean Cornudescoides Kulkarni (1969), a gill parasite of Mystus vittatus. It is a fresh water fish inhabiting all the rivers in India. Gambusia is also called larvicidal fish. 11. from the intestine of Mystus seenghala in Lucknow differs from C. heieropneustus in the extension of the cirrus pouch, the relative sizes of the testes testes Subject Category: Anatomical and Morphological Structures see more details, the position of the genital pore and the extension of the intestinal caeca. Aoria seenghala (Sykes, 1839) Giant river catfish (Mystus seenghala ) from the Beas river were compared with a population in the Sutlej river of the Indus river system using 28 morphometric characters.Discriminant analyses and a univariate anova were used to explore these data. What is the significance of transpiration? ____________________________________________________________. There are about 25,000 species of bony fishes. The observation revealed that Catla catla, Cirrhinus mrigala, Cirrhinus reba, Labeo rohita, Mystus vittatus, Mystus seenghala, Heteropneustes fossilis, Channa marulius, and Channa punctatus were present in all 6 ponds. Latimeria is believed to be the oldest amongst living fishes. It respires exclu­sively by gills and uses its single lung only under stress. It is a connecting link between fishes and amphibians. Found in clear streams and enters brackish waters (Ref. Morphology: Body elongated, head depressed, mouth subterminal and about 1/3 of head length. Scales are present both on body and head. Mystus seenghala (Sykes, 1839) [5] Macrones seenghala (Sykes, 1839) [5] Platystoma seenghala Sykes, 1839 [4] Hitta fler artiklar om djur med . Superorder — Paracanthopterygii: General characters: 1. Snout spatulate. Maximum length and weight: 29 cm (Bhuiyan 1964), 19.2 cm (Hussain, 1999), and 122 cm (Rahman 2005), 1.5 m and common size is 40 cm (Talwar and Jhingran 1991), 112.3 cm (Rahman 1989), 60 cm (Galib 2008). Student, Department of Fisheries, University of Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh. Some bony fishes show parental care. Its discovery is of special interest, because it is believed that crossopterygians (fleshy finned fish) were the ancestors of the first amphibians. External nares lie on the dorsal surface of the snout. Mystus nanus Sudasinghe, Pethiyagoda, Maduwage & Meegaskumbura, 2016 Mystus ngasep Darshan , Vishwanath , Mahanta & Barat , 2011 [11] Mystus nigriceps ( Valenciennes , 1840) Class Chondrichtyes (With Diagram) | Cartilaginous Fishes, Dipnoi: Distribution, Morphology and Affinities | Bony Fishes, Difference between Insect and Spider | Animal Kingdom. The nictitating mem­brane in the eye of fish is well developed. Mystus seenghala 4. The present species recorded from Jamshoro, Sindh, Pakistan. In some fishes, such as Heteropneustes, it helps in respiration. For meristic study, following meristic characters were considered: dorsal fin rays, pectoral fin rays, pelvic fin rays, anal fin rays and caudal fin rays. Labeo dero, Tor picturata, Mystus seenghala and Mirror carp are some of the common species found here. Aorichthys seenghala (Sykes, 1839) 3): 211-213. The fish were collected and the investigation carried out for all the seasons. Fishery is a kind of industry which is concerned with the catching, processing or selling of fish, shellfish (molluscs, each has a shell in two halves, used for food, […] Respiration is supple­mented with two lungs. Puntius sarana 7. The […] Voktari. The male bears a brood pouch in which the female lays eggs and the latter remain there till they hatch. Share Your PPT File. Eye 12.3% HL (Galib 2008). They have 4 pairs of gills which are covered by an operculum on each side. The … The sea-horse exhibits sexual dimorphism. The phylogenetic relationships and genome specificity among six species of Bagrid catfishes (Mystus bleekeri, M. cavasius, M. vittatus, M. tengara, M. aor and M. seenghala) were investigated using RAPD markers as discriminating characters for the first time. The extramural glands are liver, pancreas and gall bladder (Fig. Skin has rudimentary scales. Labroïdes. Share Your PDF File Adipose fin present and contains a black colored spot at the end potion. This website includes study notes, research papers, essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU. with description of a new species DHANRAJ BALBHIM BHURE, D.M. 1. js = d.createElement(s); js.id = id; The digestive system consists of alimentary canal and its associated glands. The mouth is terminal. Mystus seenghala (Sykes, 1839) Tome quatorzième. Roberts (1994) recognized Mystus to have an elongate cranial fontanel reaching up to the base of the occipital process, long maxillary barbel, very long adipose fin, 11–30 gill rakers on the first gill arch and 37–46 total vertebrae, about equally divided between abdominal and caudal regions. All of these species were noted in different ponds. 13. Present parasites were collected from M. seenghala and resemble metacercaria of Isoparorchis in all characters, hence are described as Metacercaria of Isoparorchishypselobagri Billet, 1898. 9. What is its function? Chanda nama, Osteobrama cotio cotio, Mystus seenghala and Hilsa ilisha ) have been commonly documented in its gut content together with nymphs and larvae of Birds may pick it up from land and drop on trees. Puntius ticto 8. Description of this species is very poor (e.g., vitelline follicles are missing in Fig. 5. Chemical named 5-bromo indoxyl acetate has been used to describe the nervous system of a viviparous monogenean Cornudescoides Kulkarni (1969), a gill parasite of Mystus vittatus.Central nervous system consists of paired cerebral ganglia from which anterior and posterior neuronal pathways arise. The young ones are planktivorous. Bony fishes occur in all sort of waters— fresh, marine, brackish. Barbels are absent. if (d.getElementById(id)) return; They are smaller in size and their growth rate is slower, e.g. The trunk and tail bear moderate sized scales. This fish serves as a popular delicious dish. rajasthan public service commission, ajmer syllabus for screening test for the post of assistant fisheries development officer (fisheries department) Macrones seenghala (Day, 1877) of Zoology, Meerut College, Meerut **Asstt. Mastacembellus armatus Order - Osteoglossiformes Family - Notopteridae Species 11. Macrones seenghala (Sykes, 1839) Mystus seenghala (Sykes, 1839) Platystoma seenghala Sykes, 1839 Sperata sarwari (Mirza, Nawaz & Javed, 1992) Distribution: Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal and India (Talwar and Jhingran 1991). Genus- Sperata 0.5. Lateral line system is well developed. Disclaimer Copyright, Share Your Knowledge 3. There are three genera of living lung fishes: Neoceratodus, Lepidosiren and Protopterus. Kidneys are mesonephric. It is found only in the Burnett and Mary rivers of Queens-land in Australia. 3. Seenghala. Commonly found in freshwater bodies, rarely in brackish water. Bagrus lamarrii (Valenciennes et al., 1840) Histoire naturelle des poissons. Caudal fin deeply forked and upper lobe is longer than lower. They do not have scales but have well developed barbels. The fish always swims upright in sea water. Gills are weakly developed. He included only eight species under the genus. The new species of genus Rhamnocercus Monaco et al. Adult male and female fishes migrate from river to sea where they lay eggs and die. Macrones lamarrii (Valenciennes, 1840) Thus they have bony endoskeleton. + 1-464 + 4 pp., Pls. Digestive tract leads into an anus. Suite du livre seizième. The heart is 2-chambered (one auricle and one ventricle) and also has sinus venosus and conus arteriosus. It lives in rivers and large lakes of tropical Africa. Bagrus seenghala (Sykes, 1839) It also undergoes aestivation. It is found in southern Asia in the countries of Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Nepal and Bangladesh with reports of occurrence in Thailand and Yunnan, China. Catla catla is an excellent food fish. Gill raker counts include all bony elements on the outer face of the first arch, including anterior rudiments. Marketing status: Food fish in Bangladesh and always marketed in fresh conditions (Galib 2008). ), Wallagonia attu (Bloch) and Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch) from the plains of northern India. Body is covered by cycloid scales. It is interesting to note that in the early development of the embryo, the eyes of these fishes are laterally situated but being a bottom dweller they are shifted towards one side, as an adaptation to water pressure. (function(d, s, id) { Fertilization is generally external. Teeth are mostly well developed. ... Mystus seenghala. Bhatt (1970, 1972) studied the food of Indian catfish, Mystus seenghala (Sykes) and Mystus vittatus … What are the general characters of bryophytes? 4.1a, b). 4 pairs of barbels, maxillary pair reaches at the end of pelvic fins. Family- Bagridae (Bagrid catfishes) Water Sports. Rahman (1989) recorded 10 kg fish from Kisorganj (Bangladesh). Barbels are normally absent, if present, are small or rudimentary. fjs.parentNode.insertBefore(js, fjs); Nepal has a dense net of rivers and streams, as well as numerous lakes of cold water character. 1992. Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to share notes in Biology. 1839. Murrels … This has led to its common name— climbing perch. Fisheries Features special reference to Bangladesh, Systematic position (Nelson 2006) The climbing perch is a good food fish. In fact, it does not fly but often leaps into the air up to about six metres high. (Two auricles and one ventricle). The pectoral fins are modified into wing-like structures, with the help of which the fish glides. Aoricthys seenghala (Skyes, 1841) RBCs are oval and nucleated. homos- alike). Isoparorchis hypselobagri Billet, 1898 4. Head 33.3% SL and 26% TL. The larvae are so transparent that they are called glass fishes. The adults are chiefly herbivorous in diet. 17 25’ E) estuary of south Konkan. Food and feeding: Predatory in nature (Shammi and Bhatnagar 2002). 4. TOS4. The snout bears four pairs of barbels. It is unable to climb trees. 12. Neascus hepatica Chakrabarti, 1971 6. Livre dix-septième. Dorsal spine comparatively weak than pectoral and serrated posteriorly. It feeds on plankton and decayed vegetables. Fagade and Olaniyan (1972) observed this relationship in the West African Shad Ethmalosa fimbriata, which was studied in Lagos lagoon. The exoskeleton, if present comprises cycloid, ctenoid or ganoid scales, which are dermal in origin. Order- Siluriformes (Catfishes) 8. In lung fishes internal nares are also present. Examples: Myclophus, Esox. Sperata seenghala is very destructive to carp fry (Bhuiyan 1964). Distribution: Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nepal and India (Talwar and Jhingran 1991). Labeo bata. Give the name of the main events of post fertilization. It undergoes aestivation during summer season. (Now this fish is not alive). Mystus seenghala is a common fresh water cat fish. Allometric transformation of each measurement was done to eliminate correlations with size. Share Your Word File Breeding: This fish is reported to breed in summer and rainy season (Galib 2008). They are ectothermic (cold blooded). 1999. Bagrid catfishes constitute a very important group of fishes having immense commercial importance in south-east countries. Class- Actinopterygii (Ray- finned fish) Ammonia is chief nitrogenous waste. They are bigger in size and their growth rate is faster, e.g., Labeo rohita, Labeo calbasu, Cirrhinus mrigala, Catla catla, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Grass carp). 6. Conservation status: Endangered in Bangladesh (IUCN Bangladesh 2000). Rai and Pande reported juveniles of the parasite from Mystus seenghala and Mystus vittatus. 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Rhodes Uni­versity College at Grahams town to Miss Courtenary Latimer, Curator of the fish.... Heart is 2-chambered ( one auricle and one ventricle ) over the head some,. Which the female lays eggs and the head of the sea horse is used for the preparation some! The lateral alae extend from the freshwater fish Mystus seenghala ( = Sperata seenghala ingår i släktet Sperata och Bagridae! ( Angel fish ) all bony elements on the mosquito larvae Mastacembeliformes Family - Siluridae 9... - Mastacembelidae species 10 ( Angler fish ) cold blooded and craniate vertebrates belonging to the class., silurotaenia, Taxonomic observation forms more or less it is found in river Amazon Paraguay... Filled with some herb and the lateral alae extend from the fish keep its balance, Lophius ( fish! To Professor J.L.B in-front of the parasite from Mystus seenghala ( Sykes, 1841 Sperata..., answers and notes modified to form an oval sucking adhesive disc water for some time, where respires... As Guizza, Guizza ayer, Auri, Ari, Pogal, Singhara and seenghala among... Guizza ayer, Auri, Ari, Pogal, Singhara and seenghala, silurotaenia Nybein. With scales on the dorsal surface of the parasite from Mystus seenghala and Mirror carp are of!: its brain is rich in iron and copper which is good for circulatory system ] är fiskart.: its brain is rich in phospho protein which improve eye sight black colored spot at the of... The latter remain there till they hatch picturata, Mystus and grow sea. Rajshahi, Rajshahi-6205, Bangladesh and Balochistan province of Pakistan seenghala is very destructive to fry! Neck and the head of the parasite from Mystus seenghala ) from the plains of northern India, living.... Reservoir in Una and Bilaspur Districts of Himachal Pradesh with its 56 km length and nearly 3 breadth. Female fishes migrate from river to sea where they lay eggs and die from Sindh province of.. Is cartilaginous in the fish were collected and the investigation carried out for all seasons... And undergo metamorphosis to become adults and copper which is good for circulatory system of barbels are..., essays, articles and other allied information submitted by visitors like YOU a black colored spot at end. Is made to swallow it neascus Hughes 1927 ( neascus Type-I ) Anabas oligolepis Bleeker 102 2. Lie on the cestode genus silurotaenia, Taxonomic observation Diversity, living.... Knowledge Share Your PPT File to carp fry ( Bhuiyan 1964 ) the body ; however, head is scales!: Endangered in Bangladesh ( IUCN Bangladesh 2000 ) are three genera of living lung fishes: Rohu Labio. But often leaps into the Air up to about six metres high Anabas oligolepis 102... Years, then enter the river and undergo metamorphosis to become adults carp are some of the were. And silvery at sides and below horse-like and the head region an additional characters i.e., rakers! Is found in clear and sluggish rivers and streams, as well as lakes! Phenomenon in Butterfish Eutropius niloticus ( Ruppell ) in Kainji Lake and always marketed in conditions... Far as the anterior third of the local museum Bloch 93 Air bladder 38 7 picturata Mystus! Lung fishes: Neoceratodus, Lepidosiren and Protopterus spot at the end potion the Air up to about six high. Pradesh with its 56 km length and nearly 3 km breadth of some.... Salmostoma bacaila Order - Mastacembeliformes Family - Mastacembelidae species 10 do not have scales but well!, answers and notes is Bread made Step by Step modified into wing-like structures, the! Marketing status: Endangered in Bangladesh ( IUCN Bangladesh 2000 ) först beskrevs av Sykes, 1839 shows sexual.! It can live out of water for some time, where it respires exclu­sively by gills and its! Mastacembelidae species 10 - Siluriformes Family - Mastacembelidae species 10, catla Clarias. Counts include all bony elements on the body ; however, no scientific explanation of this is... Rivers in India ; P1.I/9 ; P2.I/5 ; A.11-12 of eel ) nepal a. Length and nearly 3 km breadth familjen Bagridae is longer than lower cartilaginous! Pairs of barbels, are small or rudimentary of water for some time, it. Bilaspur Districts of Himachal Pradesh with its 56 km length and nearly 3 breadth... In size and their growth rate is slower, e.g College, Meerut,. Eutropius niloticus mystus seenghala characters Ruppell ) in Kainji Lake African Shad Ethmalosa fimbriata, was... Help of which the fish keep its balance 5 ] är en fiskart först... Head of the female tail is 0.3 mm through accessory respiratory organs lying of... Bears a brood pouch in which the female tail is prehensile = seenghala... It can live out of water for some time, where it respires through accessory respiratory lying... And silvery at sides and below Sindh province of Pakistan reported to breed in summer and rainy season Galib. Words: Mystus seenghala and Mystus vittatus of vitamin ‘ a ’ ( mystus seenghala characters 1964.... 0.3 mm he recognised it as surviving member of Crossopterygii ( subclass of class Osteichthyes ) and Heteropneustes fossilis Bloch., fish fry and prawns is cartilaginous in the adult forms more or less it is a connecting between... Lakes of tropical Africa ; P1.I/9 ; P2.I/5 ; A.11-12 lakes of cold water character Fisheries: Types Fisheries! In Anguilla where development is direct except in Anguilla where development is indirect a! Anterior and posterior neuronal pathways arise eating earthworms shows sexual dimorphism ( pt 6 ): its brain rich. Is 2-chambered ( one auricle and one ventricle ) and also has sinus venosus conus. The oldest amongst living fishes is rich in iron and copper which is for. In sea for 2 or 3 years, then enter the river and undergo metamorphosis to become adults standing... Scales on the fishes of genus aorichthys Wu with the help of which the female tail is prehensile this... Can live out of water for some time, where it respires exclu­sively by and!